Roadmap to Referencing

for use with Harvard-UniSA Style referencing

Sound and Visual


: Episode of a television program/series on DVD, Blu-Ray, videotape, iTunes etc.

Description: Episode of an ongoing television program or series viewed via physical or digital media, not TV broadcast.


  • Cite an episode’s director as its author. Include (dir.) following director’s initials. Where directors are not identified, cite the producer (prod.) or production company.
  • Present episode titles in normal font inside inverted commas, and italicise program titles.
  • Always include the type of recording e.g. DVD, Blu-Ray, videotape, iTunes.

In-text citation

Format and layout:
(Director's family name OR Producer's family name OR Authoring body year)
Director's family name OR Producer's family name OR Authoring body (year)
In season two’s penultimate episode 'Blackwater' (Marshall 2012), the...

Reference List / Bibliography

Format and layout:
Director's family name, Initial(s) (dir. OR prod.) OR Authoring body year of release, Title of program, type of recording, Production Company OR Distributor.
Marshall, N (dir.) 2012, ‘Blackwater’, Game of thrones: the complete second season, DVD, HBO.